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A psychological treatment that focuses on increasing awareness of body and mind and helping patient’s ajust to difficulties in their lives.

The common name used in Europe for this is Paracetamol.

Activities and movements that people engage in on a day-to-day basis, including sitting, standing, reaching, lifting, and bending.

An alternative therapy that involves the insertion of needles into specific parts of the body.

Pain that is sudden in nature; categorized as lasting less than 6 weeks.

A tissue graft used during surgery that is taken from someone other than the patient being operated on, usually from a cadaver or a bone bank. Spinal fusion surgeries often use allografts to stimulate bone growth so that fusion can take place.

This condition refers to a rip or tear in the annulus fibrosis (tough exterior) of an intervertebral disc.

The cartilaginous outer wall of an intervertebral disc; contains the inner gel-like fluid of the disc’s nucleus, called the nucleus pulposus.

A term used to describe the front plane of the body. One of several anatomical terms of location, including posterior, dorsal, ventral, lateral, medial, proximal, and distal.

A spine surgery that is aimed at fusing two vertebral bodies into one solid segment of bone. An anterior fusion accesses the spine through the front of the body, usually with an incision in the abdomen.

A ligament that traverses the entire length of the spinal canal on the anterior (front) surface of the spine.

A spine surgery that fuses two or more lumbar vertebrae together into a solid segment of bone. The fusion takes place between anterior vertebral bodies.

A type of spinal surgery that permanently connects the front and the back of two or more vertebrae; this surgery also may involve the partial or total removal of one or more intervertebral discs.

The middle layer of a three-layer membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord; the arachnoid mater is sandwiched by the dura mater on the outside and the pia mater on the inside.

Degeneration of the joints of the spine.

The fusion of bones across a joint space, thereby limiting or eliminating movement. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of a surgical procedure, such as fusion of the spine.

  • Any disease or disorder involving a joint.
  • The surgical remodelling of a diseased or damaged joint.

A minimally invasive procedure that utilizes an arthroscope, which is a type of endoscope, to gain access to the intervertebral disc that is causing pain from a nucleus protrusion. Arthroscopy uses a very small incision and does not require cutting of muscles, ligaments, or tendons.

Pertaining to a joint.

Also referred to as disc arthroplasty, ADR is a procedure that removes a degenerated intervertebral disc and replaces it with a prosthetic disc.

A widely available non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pain killer.

A tissue or bone graft used during surgery where the graft is taken from another region of the patient’s body. In the case of an autograft for spinal fusion surgery, the bone is usually taken from the patient’s pelvic bone.


Treatment for back conditions that entail one or more incisions so that a surgeon can access the spine, typically with the goal of diagnosing, removing, and/or repairing injured vertebrae, intervertebral discs, muscles, ligaments, etc.


A growth factor that triggers the formation of new bone or cartilage. Sometimes BMP is used in lieu of a bone graft in spinal fusion surgeries.

The hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones may be classed as long, short, or flat.

When missing or damaged portions of bone are replaced with bone from a natural, synthetic, or artificial source. A bone graft is used in a spinal fusion procedure to stimulate osteogenesis (new bone growth) so that fusion can occur.

Bone which is harvested from one location in an individual and placed in another individual (allograft bone) or in a different location in the same individual (autogenous bone).

An electrical device used to induce the growth of new bone after a spinal fusion surgery. A stimulator can be implanted at the surgical site or worn externally.

The tissue contained within the internal cavities of the bones. A major function of this tissue is to produce red blood cells.

Usually a relatively thin metal device which is affixed to bone via screws. Bone plates are used to immobilize bones or bone fragments such that healing can occur.

A threaded metal device which is inserted into bone. The functions of bone screws are to immobilize bones or bone fragments or to affix other medical devices, such as metal bone plates, to bones.

Bone spurs are small and rounded or knobby growths of bone that accumulate in or around joints or where connective tissues (such as ligaments or tendons) and bones meet.

Bone spurs are small and rounded or knobby growths of bone that accumulate in or around joints or where connective tissues (such as ligaments or tendons) and bones meet.

Also called vertebrae (or singular, vertebra). The bones of the spine are stacked to create a column-like structure that protects the spinal cord and allows our body to perform a variety of movements.

Occurs when an intervertebral disc - a tough yet spongy oval-shaped structure that is located between two vertebrae - loses its natural height, causing the disc walls to bulge. It is a normal part of the ageing process..



The letter “C” followed by a number is a way to refer to the seven vertebrae of the cervical spine, or neck. For instance, a herniated disc might occur between the C3 and C4 vertebrae.

A rigid brace, also called a cervical collar, which supports the head and neck. It provides stabilization of the C1-C7 vertebrae, which may be needed after a traumatic accident or after an invasive neck surgery.

A narrowing of the spinal canal, caused when one or more anatomical elements of the spine becomes inflamed or damaged, or shifts out of place.

Soft, flexible tissue that lines the joints of the spine (called facet joints); cartilage is also an integral part of the cushioning discs located in between the vertebrae.

A bundle of nerve roots in the lumbar spine that branch off the end of the spinal cord and extends through the lower extremities, bowel and bladder.

An emergency condition caused by the compression of the nerve bundle in the lower part of the spinal canal, the cauda equina. Symptoms include pain, paralysis and incontinence; the condition requires immediate medical attention.

Central canal stenosis is the narrowing, or constriction, of the spinal canal.

Consists of the brain and spinal cord, which control the motor and sensory signals that are sent throughout the body; works in conjunction with the peripheral nervous system.

The body of a vertebra.

Protective nutrient fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

A term used to refer to the neck. The cervical region of the spine is composed of seven vertebrae that allow the head and neck to move together.

The neck region of the spine containing the first seven vertebrae.

“Radiculopathy” is the general term for the symptoms that arise when there is improper or incomplete function of one or more spinal nerve roots. The term "cervical" refers to the portion of the spine that runs through the neck.

A chiropractor is a health care professional who is concerned with diagnosis and treatment of the musculoskeletal system. Chiropractic therapy is particularly common for patients who have neck or back pain.

This term describes pain that lasts longer than three months.

spinal claudication is impaired flow of spinal fluid and nerves due to stenosis.

The region of the spine below the sacrum. It is also known as the tailbone.

A psychological treatment that aims to decrease distress and increase well-being through talking through patient’s beliefs and concerns and changing their behaviours.

A collapsed intervertebral disc is a degenerative spine condition that occurs as a result of ageing or regular wear and tear. This condition is relatively common as an individual grows older, and is actually asymptomatic unless the disc or disc material comes into contact with a nerve root or the spinal cord itself.

The act of pressing together

Present at and existing from the time of birth.

A spinal surgery in which the vertebral body is removed.

Bone tissue which has been depleted of its minerals; e.g. calcium and phosphorous.

Oral steroids that are a pain medication for patients who need immediate pain relief. These medications are most commonly prescribed to patients dealing with arthritic pain, allergic reactions and other similar conditions.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that are often recommended for patients with arthritic pain or pain stemming from degenerative joint conditions.

A clear fluid that surrounds the spinal cord and brain and protects them and the central nervous system.

A CT scan uses X-ray technology to study the inner workings of the body. This diagnostic imagery tool is used to generate an image of a specific part of the body from a series of two-dimensional images.


Surgical treatment designed to alleviate pressure on a nerve, nerve root or the spinal cord itself.

A procedure aimed at releasing neural compression caused by anatomical abnormalities in the spine; a decompression surgery may involve the removal of bone or tissue to create more room for spinal nerves.

Refers to the loss of height and water content of one or more of the intervertebral discs that cushion and support the bones of the spine. It is part of the normal ageing process. Degenerative disc disease is a term used in some countries for when this process appears to be causing pain.

Characterized by the age related normal process in the discs or small joints of the spine. Degenerative disc disease and facet disease is the term used by some clinicians when they think pain is coming from these structures.

A condition that describes a prolonged feeling of sadness, melancholy, disappointment and pessimism that interferes with daily life.

Intervertebral discs are thick pads that cushion the spine and separate adjacent vertebrae in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine segments. Discs are comprised of a tough fibrous wall (annulus fibrosis) and a gel-like centre (nucleus pulposus). They are very strong structures.

Occurs when the components of an intervertebral disc extrudes through a tear or crack in the fibrous disc wall.

A stage of intervertebral disc degeneration during which the disc protrudes outside of its normal circumference. A disc protrusion is often defined as a focal bulge that involves 180 degrees or less of the disc's circumference.

Disc reabsorption occurs when a disc herniates and the human body releases chemicals that break down and absorb the gel-like material.

A condition where the material from the intervertebral disc has broken away and is free in the spinal canal.

The surgical removal of a herniated intervertebral disc in whole or in part.

The inflammation of an intervertebral disc commonly caused by infection.

A term used to refer to pain that is thought to be coming from one or more intervertebral discs.

Pain thought to be caused by a condition related to the intervertebral discs of the spine.

A diagnostic tool in which contrast dye is injected into the nucleus of an intervertebral disc, but it is no longer in common use because of the risk of harm.

One of three layers that make up the meninges, which is a protective membrane system that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.


A test that uses the electrical signals of muscles to help detect potential nerve abnormalities. It can be useful in the detection of several spinal disorders, including spinal stenosis, herniated discs, bulging discs and sciatic nerve compression. Often used in conjunction with a nerve conduction study (NCS).

A minimally invasive procedure that addresses spinal abnormalities causing painful nerve compression. A series of flexible tubes and a video monitor allow the surgeon to access the affected portion of the spine through a small incision.

A minimally invasive procedure designed to alleviate chronic neck or back pain by reducing swelling at the site of spinal nerve compression. This is accomplished by injecting an anti-inflammatory agent (corticosteroid) into the adjacent epidural space, which is the area between the protective covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae.


A minimally invasive procedure that uses an injected nerve-blocking agent for two purposes: to reduce pain caused by inflamed facet joints and to confirm that the pain is coming from the suspected facet joint.

The pairs of hinge-like joints that connect vertebrae and allow for articulation of the spine. Like all joints, facet joints can develop degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis as the body ages.

A surgical procedure in which one or more degenerated vertebral facet joints are excised in order to remove a common cause of nerve compression.

Describes pain that is thought to be coming from one or more of the vertebral facet joints in the spine. Facetogenic pain can cause chronic neck or back pain, in addition to other symptoms related to nerve compression.

A term describing the belief or worry that certain movements /activities will result in more pain and injury. Patients then begin to avoid movements and activities, which may, over time decrease movement and muscle strength making symptoms more troublesome.

Use of radiologic imaging to assist during invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures.

A foramen is an opening or canal in the spinal column through which spinal nerves travel after branching off the spinal cord.

Refers to the canals or narrow passageways that exist between the vertebrae and protect spinal nerves. Plural of foramen.

Also known as foraminal stenosis, the gradual narrowing of the foraminal canals in the spine may be part of the normal ageing process and can sometimes lead to nerve compression.

Refers to the narrowing of the canals in the vertebrae that are responsible for protecting the nerve roots as they exit the spinal column.

Surgery to permanently connect two or more vertebrae in the spine.


With age, the centre of vertebral discs may start to lose water content, making the disc less effective as a cushion, causing displacement of the disc's structural material. Most disc herniations occur in the bottom two discs of the lumbar spine.,. A herniated disc can be painless or can produce pain in a nerve root in the spine. This can produce symptoms of back pain or pain, numbness, tingling or weakness of the leg called "sciatica." Also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, or herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP). Can also occur in the neck and, rarely, in the thoracic portion of the spine.

Descriptive term for an organ or body part that has experienced an enlargement of the cells. This is relevant to the spine in cases of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, in which one or more of the ligaments between the vertebrae have begun to ossify, or thicken, potentially leading to nerve compression.


An analgesic in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug class used to treat mild to moderate pain and inflammation.

The insertion of a probe to heat tissues within a degenerating intervertebral disc that is the source of nerve compression causing pain, tingling, numbness or muscle weakness. This causes disc tissue to shrink, thereby alleviating nerve compression.

As related to the spine, this refers to an inability of a portion of the spinal anatomy to perform its intended function. This can be caused by a number of degenerative spine conditions or by traumatic injury.

Grafting bone or an implant in the space where an intervertebral disc used to be, for the purpose of fusing two or more vertebral segments.

A type of implant used to promote fusion during surgery.


Procedure to repair osteoporosis fractures, where glue-like material is injected into a balloon inserted into a collapsed vertebra.

A curve in the spine that points to the back of the body. A hunchback is one example of kyphosis.



The letter L followed by a number identifies a specific vertebra in the lumbar (lower) spine. For example, L3 is the third vertebra in the lumbar spine. L3-4 would refer to the disc between the L3 and L4 vertebrae.

Surgical procedure removing portions of bone to relieve pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots.

A type of spinal fusion surgery where the surgeon enters the lower back through the side rather than back. This procedure is designed to be completed through minimally invasive means.


Low back pain.

Tough bands of tissue that connect the vertebrae, lend stability for good posture and allow for a wide range of back movement, especially flexion; called “flavum” (Latin for yellow) because of their yellow appearance.

The ligaments of the spine, like ligaments throughout the body, are in place to support the neck and back, and they help stabilize the spinal column.

Curve in the spine that points to the front of the body.

Lower back.

“Lumbar” refers to the lower region of your back. “Radiculopathy” refers to a set of symptoms usually associated with a compressed spinal nerve – symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and muscle weakness. Radiculopathy is the correct medical term for ‘sciatica’.

A broad term referring to a range of symptoms associated with the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in the lower back.


a standardized physiotherapy approach to both the assessment and treatment of low back pain and/or leg pain (sciatica)

see also: sciatica

Acute pain that may result from excessive or abnormal pressure or strain being placed on the muscles and other supporting structures of the spinal canal.

A drug (steroid) that reduces inflammation and is commonly used to treat abnormal inflammation or allergic reactions.

The surgical excision of bone or disc material to alleviate nerve compression in the spinal column, using a microscope.

A surgical procedure performed with an operating microscope to remove disc material.

Surgery performed through small incisions rather than a large incision.


Magnetic resonance imaging. A diagnostic imaging test. MRI clearly images soft tissues such as the intervertebral discs and neural structures, as well as bones. A very sensitive and specific spinal imaging test that does not involve radiation.

Often known as muscle spasms, cramping refers to the spontaneous and involuntary contraction of a muscle or muscle group that leads to acute pain.

The involuntary contraction of a muscle, which often results in sharp, temporary pain.

The muscles in the neck and back provide strength and movement. They are important for posture and stability. The stronger they are the better for the spine.

pain in the muscles of the back.

Spinal cord inflammation.

Spinal cord disorder that commonly causes weakness or numbness in the arms and / or the legs. Balance is sometimes affected with a risk of falls in older patients. This may be the consequence of narrowing of the spinal canal where the spinal cord is passing though it. It most commonly occurs in the neck (cervical myelopathy) but it can also occur in the thoracic spine.


An analgesic in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug class used to treat mild to moderate pain and inflammation.

Any type of discomfort in the cervical (upper) region of the spine.

Any operation performed in the neck area. Neck surgery can be performed for a variety of reasons, but when it relates to the spine, neck procedures are often performed to relieve pain caused by a degenerative spine condition.

An abnormal overgrowth of cancer cells in a mass of tissue such as a tumour or a lump.

Various forms of pain (sharp, stabbing, throbbing, burning, etc.) that follows the path of a nerve.

The beginning portion of a nerve that is branching off the central nervous system.

Injection of a local anesthetic and or corticosteroids (anti-inflammatories) onto the nerve root sleeve surrounding a nerve root.

Chronic nerve pain that travels along the path of the nerve and may present in a variety of ways, such as sharp, dull, throbbing or burning pain.

A combination of symptoms that typically causes the patient to limp and stop after walking a distance. They may include lower back pain, leg pain, leg weakness and numbness; these symptoms may intensify when standing or walking. Neurogenic claudication is a common set of symptoms with spinal stenosis, or a narrowing of nerve passageways in the lumbar (lower) spine.

Neurogenic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the nervous system.

A term used to describe pain and other symptoms that are caused by damage to a nerve. Nerve damage can be the result of diseases such as diabetes, injury to a nerve or inflammation or compression of a nerve. Neuropathic pain can vary in severity, either remaining localized at the site of nerve damage or spreading throughout the body and affecting any muscles or dermatomes innervated by that nerve.

A term used to describe damage to a nerve, which may be caused by disease, injury, degenerative conditions or a variety of other causes. Mild cases of neuropathy may result in variable radiating symptoms like pain and tingling that follow the path of the damaged nerve.

A surgeon who specializes in the surgical treatment of conditions affecting the brain, spine and other innervated areas of the body.

A surgical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.

Non-steroidal anti - inflammatory drugs. Medications also used to reduce pain, swelling and inflammation. Examples of NSAIDs are aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and a variety of prescription drugs.

The gel-like inner nucleus material of an intervertebral disc. It is contained by the annulus fibrosis, which is the cartilaginous outer wall of the disc.


Drugs that treat pain by affecting pain perception without treating the underlying cause. These medications affect pain perception only and do not treat the pathologic condition. They have a risk of harm and so are carefully controlled by doctors prescribing them.

A surgeon who specializes in treatment of conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.

A branch of medicine that focuses on the study, diagnosis and treatment of the skeletal system, joints, muscles, ligaments and associated nerves.


The natural process of bone formation, also called osteogenesis.

A disease affecting the load-bearing joints, characterized by the deterioration of articulating cartilage that leads to cartilage and bone loss.

Commonly referred to as a bone spur, an osteophyte is a smooth growth of bone that the body develops as a natural healing mechanism.

A condition in which the bones become more porous and prone to fracture, usually age-related.

A patient who does not stay in a hospital for 24 hours or more but visits a hospital or medical facility for diagnosis and/or treatment. Related to surgery, outpatient refers to a procedure that does not require the patient to stay in the hospital overnight.


Loss of muscle functions due to an interruption of sensory and motor signals between the brain and the spinal cord. Paralysis is usually caused by a stroke or nerve damage of some kind.

Also known as spondylolysis, a pars fracture is an injury to the pars interarticularis in the posterior section of the spinal column. This stress fracture is common in young athletes and may be initiated by certain repetitive motions as in throwing sports. Like many sports stress fractures they usually heal.

A surgical procedure used to treat an unhealed pars fracture or spondylolysis that is causing pain.

Projection of bone from the back of the vertebra that helps form the ring around the spinal canal.

Passage through skin by needle or other object.

The removal of bulging disc material through a large bore needle inserted into the disc space. The disc material is removed using cutting, sucking or laser appliances. Also known as percutaneous microdiscectomy.

The removal of disc material through a large bore needle.

A means for evaluating exterior abnormalities and other symptoms that may indicate whether a patient has a certain medical condition.

A trained medical professional who treats people of all ages with medical problems, conditions, illnesses or injuries that limit their capacity for movement and ability to perform activities necessary in their daily lives.

The medical field focused on developing, maintaining and restoring maximum movement and functional ability for an individual whose quality of life and abilities in these areas are threatened by age, injury, disease or environment.

a method of exercise that consists of low-impact flexibility and muscular strength and endurance movements. It emphasizes proper postural alignment, core strength and muscle balance.

A colloquial term for nerve compression often associated with degenerative conditions such as spinal arthritis and degenerative disc disease. This condition can occur at any level of the spine but is most common in the lumbar (lower back) and cervical (neck) regions. A pinched nerve produces localized pain, radiating pain, tingling, numbness and/or muscle weakness.

A term that is defined as nearer to the end or further back.

A ligament situated in the spinal canal that begins at the very top of the spine and finishes in the sacrum. This ligament is very strong and stabilizes the spine.

A spinal surgical procedure in which a bone graft and/or a spinal implant is inserted into the disc space in order to achieve spinal fusion.

A form of spinal fusion surgery performed from the back, this procedure is designed to increase spinal stability in patients with degenerative spine conditions.

In a general sense, the habitually assumed or intentionally assumed position of the human body.

Back pain can be common in pregnant women due to ligament laxity in pregnancy and altered posture and biomechanics. Many pregnant women have also reported feeling pain in their posterior pelvis area, deep in the buttocks and in the backs of the thighs.

(variation: pseudoarthrosis) In the spine, this refers movement and non-union of a failed spinal fusion.

Treatment that is usually based on talking through the patients’ beliefs and concerns, that aims to decrease distress and increase well-being.

A procedure that helps restabilize collapsed vertebral bodies by injection of material into the collapsed area. Includes vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.


Impairment of a nerve root, usually causing radiating pain, numbness, tingling or muscle weakness that corresponds to a specific nerve root.

Refers to the direction and distance that a joint can move to its full potential


A pair of joints within the pelvis between the sacrum and the ilium bones.

The triangular-shaped bone made up of five fused vertebrae near the very end of the spine.

Pain, numbness, tingling in the distribution of the sciatic nerve, which travels from deep in the buttock down to the foot.

Abnormal curvature of the spine. The most common type, idiopathic, occurs most frequently in adolescent girls, and its origin is unknown.

A slipped or herniated disc occurs when the tough, fibrous outer wall of an intervertebral disc tears and allows the disc’s nucleus material to extrude into the spinal canal.

Occurs when the protective cartilage lining of the facet joints in the spine wears down over time. This is a normal ageing process and in most people is not painful. In some patients it can cause pain and stiffness.

The passageway, encased by vertebrae, through which the spinal cord passes.

The column of vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ligaments, tendons, joints, fluid, nerves and other tissue that runs down the centre of the back and serves as skeletal support for the upper body while protecting the spinal cord.

A tubular bundle of nerve fibres that runs from the base of the skull to the lower back and is responsible for transmitting sensory and motor signals between the body’s extremities and the brain.

Direct injections of anesthetic and steroidal medications into or near spinal nerve roots, or the epidural space surrounding the spinal cord. Spinal injections are typically suggested to treat moderate to severe neck nerve and back nerve pain.

The rods, plates, screws, hooks, braided cable, mesh cages and other metal or plastic implants that may be required during spinal operations.

A reduction in the size of the spinal canal, resulting in less space available for the spinal cord and associated nerve roots; also known as spinal stenosis.

Local, segmental or generalized narrowing of the central spinal canal by bone or soft tissue elements.

A degenerative disease that produces inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae, as well as the joints between the spine and the pelvis; also known as ankylosing spondylitis or spondyloarthropathy.

Slippage of one vertebra over another as a result of an age-related degenerative condition, such as osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease.

Slippage of one vertebra over another as a result of small spinal fracture; could be related to traumatic injury or a result of repetitive stress.

A fracture (crack) in the pars interarticularis, a portion of bone where the vertebral body and the posterior elements protecting the nerve roots are joined.

A general term used to refer to age-related degeneration of the anatomical components of the spine; commonly used interchangeably with the term spinal arthritis.

Occurs when one of the neural passageways associated with the spine – especially the spinal canal and the foramina – become constricted because of an anatomical abnormality.

The perception that the world is extremely demanding and that resources to deal with it are limited. In people with pain, stressful events and every day hassles have been shown to increase distress, disability and pain intensity.

The act of extending the muscles of the legs, neck, back, shoulders and arms in preparation for exercise; also used to combat neck and back pain by improving flexibility of muscles and ligaments, reducing stress on joints and improving blood flow.



The letter T followed by a number identifies a specific vertebra in the thoracic spine. For example, T3 is the third vertebra in the thoracic spine.

A system of exercise based on the ancient Chinese martial art, Tai Chi Quan; emphasizes slow, controlled movements to improve balance, coordination, strength, flexibility and stamina.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. A form of electrical numbing used to block pain perception.

Mid-upper back area between the cervical (neck region) and lumbar (low back) spine.


A bone that makes up the spine. (Vertebrae is the plural form of vertebra.)

Bones that makes up the spine. (Vertebra is the singular form of vertebrae.)

Significant misalignment or displacement of one or more vertebrae in the spine. Subluxation can result in painful nerve compression in the spinal column and instability if due to a serious structural injury.

Procedure to repair fractures related to osteoporosis, where glue-like cement material is injected into a collapsed vertebra.


A low-impact walking exercise designed to use water’s increased resistance as a tool. Water walking allows for the strengthening and building of muscle tissue without added stress on the joints of the body, including the knees, hips, and spine.

Commonly referred to as "neck sprain or strain" after a rear end shunt car accident. It usually recovers quite quickly.


A diagnostic tool that uses electromagnetic radiation (light waves) to view dense structures inside of the body, including bones, muscles and ligaments.


A form of exercise that involves stretching various parts of the body and holding a variety of poses in order to strengthen specific muscle groups.


Injections of steroids and numbing agents into a facet joint to determine if it is a source of pain or to reduce pain and inflammation.

The Patient Line website offers information for patients with spinal conditions:
Sciatica, back pain, spinal stenosis, disc herniation, scoliosis and many other spine conditions explained in a clear reliable, and trustworthy way. Not for profit EUROSPINE experts are here to help patients and their families understand what may be worrying them.

EUROSPINE is a society of spine specialists of various disciplines with a large knowledge of spine pathologies. All well-known and accepted treatment modalities for spine pathologies are represented by the members of the society. However, the Society cannot accept any responsibility for the use of the information provided; the user and their health care professionals must retain responsibility for their health care management.

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